Cardiotonic drugs these agents affect the intracellular calcium levels in the heart muscles leading to increased contractility the result is increased cardiac output increased renal blood flow increased perfusion and increased urine formation the cardiac glycoside. 1 introduction heart failure hf is a growing cardiovascular disease affecting 1 2 of the population in developed countries it is a syndrome with high mortality and morbidity and it is often associated to other co morbidities above all in elderly patients that may influence drug pharmacokinetics pks and pharmacodynamics pds used for the treatment of hf . And pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics is currently defined as the study of the time course of drug absorption distribution metabo lism and excretion clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient. Pharmacodynamics is the study of how drugs have effects on the body the most common mechanism is by the interaction of the drug with tissue receptors located either in cell membranes or in the intracellular fluid. Cardiovascular drug pharmacodynamics creative biolabs can offer various in vitro pharmacodynamics services to help our customers promote the development of their projects our technical scientists can not only save valuable time but also provide high quality and qualified service for our clients all over the world
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